For tio 2 recent study reported on the fabrication of nf composite membranes with polyethyleneimine nanoparticle hybrid active layer through mineralizationinorganic precursors such as tetraethoxysilane teos and tetra n butyl titanate tbot were applied respectively in the preparation of pei silica and pei titania composite membranes the presence of both nps resulted in an enhancement . Microbial degradation process aids the elimination of spilled oil from the environment after critical removal of large amounts of the oil by various physical and chemical methods this is possible because microorganisms have enzyme systems to degrade and utilize different hydrocarbons as a source of carbon and energy. The composite flooding system composed of a surfactant and nanoparticles has shown great application potential in enhancing oil recovery however at present these research studies are mainly focused on anionic surfactants relatively speaking alkanolamide cdea a nonionic surfactant has the characteristics of a small adsorption amount on the rock surface no cloud point good temperature . Tertiary oil recovery technologies which include chemical flooding thermal oil recovery microbial enhanced oil recovery and gas injection which would improve oil recovery rate significantly by reducing oil viscosity decreasing the interfacial tension between oil and replacement fluid to obtain an appropriate mobility ratio jalilian et al 2019 omidi et al 2020 niu et al 2020. A recent report shows little if any inactivation after 30 min of c botulinum l7b and cap 9b exposure to 827 mpa at 75 c adequate inactivation data for estimating the kinetic parame ters for
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